# Automatic Differentiation

Deep.Net performs automatic reverse accumulation differentiation on symbolic expressions to calculate the derivatives of the user-specified model.

In most cases, the differentiation functions are invoked by the optimizer. However, sometimes it is desired to obtain an expression for the derivative.

### A sample expression

We define an expression

$\mathbf{f}(\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y}) = \frac{1}{(\sin x)^2 + y} \,.$

Here we do not use the model builder, because our intent is not to build a full model with parameter and optimizer support. Instead we define the symbolic sizes directly using the SizeSpec.symbol function and declare variables using Expr.var.

 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8:  open ArrayNDNS open SymTensor let n = SizeSpec.symbol "n" let x = Expr.var "x" [n] let y = Expr.var "y" [n] let f = 1.0 / ((sin x) ** 2.0 + y) 

## Computing derivatives

We can now compute the derivatives of $$\mathbf{f}(\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y})$$. To do so, we call the Deriv.compute function with the expression we want to differentiate. The function value and the input variables can be of any dimensionality and shape.

 1:  let df = Deriv.compute f 

The derivative object df now contains the derivative of f w.r.t. all variables that occur in that expression.

To access a specific derivative use the Deriv.ofVar function on df and pass the requested variable.

 1: 2:  let dfdx = df |> Deriv.ofVar x let dfdy = df |> Deriv.ofVar y 

We now have expressions for $$\partial f / \partial x$$ and $$\partial f / \partial y$$.

## Evaluating the expressions

We evaluate the expressions using the (slow) host interpreter. Because we do not use the model builder, we have to invoke Func.make directly to create a callable function from an expression.

 1: 2: 3: 4: 5:  let cmplr = DevHost.Compiler, CompileEnv.empty let fnF = Func.make cmplr f |> arg2 x y let fnDfdx = Func.make cmplr dfdx |> arg2 x y let fnDfdy = Func.make cmplr dfdy |> arg2 x y 

Func.make expects two arguments: the first is the compiler (or interpreter) to use to transform the expression into a function. We use the host interpreter (DevHost.Compiler) without any optional options (CompileEnv.empty). The second argument is the expression to compile.

Func.make returns a function taking a variable environment VarEnvT (essentially a map from variable names to values) and returning a tensor value. To avoid having to build the variable environment explicitly, we use the arg2 function that modifies the resulting function to take two tensor arguments instead.

We can now generate some test values for the variables $$\mathbf{x}$$ and $$\mathbf{y}$$.

 1: 2:  let valX = seq { 0.1 .. 0.2 .. 1.0 } |> ArrayNDHost.ofSeq let valY = seq { 1.1 .. 0.2 .. 2.0 } |> ArrayNDHost.ofSeq 

And compute the function values as well as derivatives.

 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6:  printfn "Using x = %A" valX printfn "Using y = %A" valY printfn "f(x, y) = %A" (fnF valX valY) printfn "" printfn "J_x f = \n%A" (fnDfdx valX valY) printfn "J_y f = \n%A" (fnDfdy valX valY) 

This prints

  1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 10: 11: 12: 13: 14: 15: 16:  Using x = [ 0.1000 0.3000 0.5000 0.7000 0.9000] Using y = [ 1.1000 1.3000 1.5000 1.7000 1.9000] f(x, y) = [ 0.9009 0.7208 0.5781 0.4728 0.3978] J_x f = [[ -0.1613 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000] [ 0.0000 -0.2934 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000] [ 0.0000 0.0000 -0.2812 0.0000 0.0000] [ 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.2203 0.0000] [ 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.1541]] J_y f = [[ -0.8117 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000] [ 0.0000 -0.5196 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000] [ 0.0000 0.0000 -0.3342 0.0000 0.0000] [ 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.2235 0.0000] [ 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.1583]] 

As expected, the Jacobians are diagonal because we computed the derivatives of an element-wise function.

## Meaning of the derivative matrix

The derivative is always returned in the shape of a Jacobian, i.e. the derivative is always a matrix. If $$\mathbf{f}$$ and $$\mathbf{x}$$ are vectors, this means

$(J_\mathbf{x} \mathbf{f})_{ij} = \frac{\partial f_i}{\partial x_j}$

and $$J_\mathbf{x} \mathbf{f}$$ will be an $$n \times m$$ matrix where $$n$$ is the length of $$\mathbf{f}$$ and $$m$$ is the length of $$\mathbf{y}$$.

If the function or an argument has the value of a matrix, the Jacobian will still be a matrix. Consider, for instance, that $$X$$ is a $$k \times l$$ matrix and $$G(X)$$ is an $$n \times m$$ matrix-valued function. Then the Jacobian $$J_G X$$ computed by Deep.Net will be a matrix of shape $$k l \times n m$$. The derivative is computed as if $$G$$ and $$X$$ were flattened into vectors (using row-major order). Thus the derivatives of the individual elements are given by

$\frac{\partial G_{i,j}}{\partial X_{v,w}} = (J_\mathbf{X} \mathbf{G})_{im + j, vl + w}$

This is also true for higher-order tensors, i.e. the derivative will be computed as if any higher order tensor were flattened into a vector using row-major order. Likewise, a scalar-valued function will produce a Jacobian matrix with one row.

### Chain rule

Using matrices to store the derivatives has the advantage that the chain rule is always valid.

Consider a vector-valued function $$\mathbf{f} (G (\mathbf{x}))$$. Given the derivatives $$J_\mathbf{x} G$$ and $$J_G \mathbf{f}$$ we can compute the derivative $$J_\mathbf{x} \mathbf{f}$$ by

$J_\mathbf{x} \mathbf{f} = J_G \mathbf{f} \cdot J_\mathbf{x} G$

where $$\cdot$$ represent the matrix dot product.

val n : obj

Full name: Diff.n
val x : float

Full name: Diff.x
val y : float

Full name: Diff.y
val f : float

Full name: Diff.f
val sin : value:'T -> 'T (requires member Sin)

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.Operators.sin
val df : obj

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val dfdx : obj

Full name: Diff.dfdx
val dfdy : obj

Full name: Diff.dfdy
val cmplr : obj * obj

Full name: Diff.cmplr
val fnF : (obj -> obj -> obj)

Full name: Diff.fnF
val fnDfdx : (obj -> obj -> obj)

Full name: Diff.fnDfdx
val fnDfdy : (obj -> obj -> obj)

Full name: Diff.fnDfdy
val valX : obj

Full name: Diff.valX
Multiple items
val seq : sequence:seq<'T> -> seq<'T>

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.Operators.seq

--------------------
type seq<'T> = System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<'T>

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Collections.seq<_>
val valY : obj

Full name: Diff.valY
val printfn : format:Printf.TextWriterFormat<'T> -> 'T

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.ExtraTopLevelOperators.printfn 